##
Coarse Reducibility and Algorithmic Randomness

Status: published in the *Journal of
Symbolic Logic* 81 (2016) 1028 - 1046.

Availability: journal
version and preprint

**Abstract.** A *coarse description* of a set *A* of natural
numbers is a set *D* of natural numbers
such that the symmetric difference of *A* and *D*
has asymptotic density 0. We study the extent to which noncomputable
information can be effectively recovered from all coarse descriptions
of a given set *A*, especially when *A* is effectively random in
some
sense. We show that if *A* is 1-random and *B* is computable
from
every coarse description *D* of *A*, then *B* is
*K*-trivial, which
implies that if *A* is in fact weakly 2-random then *B* is
computable. Our main tool is a kind of compactness theorem for
cone-avoiding descriptions, which also allows us to prove the same
result for 1-genericity in place of weak 2-randomness. In the
other direction, we show that if *A* is a
Δ^{0}_{2}
1-random set, then there is a noncomputable c.e. set computable
from every coarse description of *A*, but that not all
*K*-trivial
sets are computable from every coarse description of some 1-random
set. We study both uniform and nonuniform notions of coarse
reducibility.
A set *Y* is *uniformly coarsely reducible* to *X*
if there is a Turing functional Φ such that if
*D* is a coarse description of *X*, then
Φ^{D} is a coarse
description of *Y*. A set *B* is *nonuniformly coarsely
reducible*
to *A*
if every coarse description of *A* computes a coarse description of
*B*. We show that a certain natural embedding of the Turing
degrees
into the
coarse degrees (both uniform and nonuniform) is not surjective.
We also show that if
two sets are mutually weakly 3-random, then their coarse
degrees form a minimal pair, in both the uniform and nonuniform cases,
but that the same is not true of every
pair of relatively 2-random sets, at least in the nonuniform coarse
degrees.

drh@math.uchicago.edu